Design for Safety (DfS) is a proactive approach to ensure that products are safe for their intended use and do not pose unacceptable risks to users, operators, bystanders, or the environment. DfS involves identifying and eliminating or minimizing potential hazards throughout the product lifecycle, from the initial concept to the disposal or recycling of the product.
DfS can be integrated into the design process by following some key steps:
- Establish a safety policy and objectives: The design team should define the scope and goals of the DfS process, as well as the roles and responsibilities of each member. The safety policy should reflect the stakeholders’ and target market’s legal, ethical, and social expectations. The safety objectives should be measurable, achievable, and aligned with the product requirements and specifications.
- Conduct a hazard analysis: The design team should identify all possible sources of harm that could result from the product or its use, such as mechanical, electrical, thermal, chemical, biological, ergonomic, or human factors hazards. The hazard analysis should consider normal and abnormal operating conditions and foreseeable misuse or abuse scenarios. The hazard analysis should also include a risk assessment, which evaluates the severity and probability of each hazard and its potential consequences.
- Implement risk reduction measures: The design team should apply the hierarchy of controls to reduce the risk of each hazard to an acceptable level. The hierarchy of controls consists of four levels: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and administrative controls. Elimination involves eradicating the hazard from the product or its use. Substitution involves replacing the hazardous component or material with a less hazardous one. Engineering controls involve modifying the design or adding features to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Administrative controls involve providing warnings, instructions, training, or personal protective equipment to inform or protect the users.
- Verify and validate the safety performance: The design team should test and evaluate the product to ensure that it meets the safety objectives and complies with the relevant standards and regulations. The verification and validation activities should include both analytical and experimental methods, such as simulations, calculations, inspections, measurements, or trials. The verification and validation results should be documented and reviewed by the design team and other stakeholders.
- Monitor and improve safety performance: The design team should collect and analyze feedback from the users, operators, maintainers, regulators, or other parties involved in the product lifecycle. The feedback should include both positive and negative aspects of the product’s safety performance, such as incidents, accidents, near misses, complaints, suggestions, or compliments. The design team should use the feedback to identify any gaps or weaknesses in the DfS process and implement corrective or preventive actions to improve the product’s safety.
DfS is a beneficial practice that can enhance the quality and reliability of products and reduce the costs and liabilities associated with product failures or injuries. By integrating DfS into the design process, designers can create products that are functional, and attractive but also safe and sustainable.